Outside of cities and large towns there is no access to any form of waste water treatment, and even within cities sewerage coverage is extremely limited, in Kampala at less than 10%. Pit latrines are consequently the default sanitation option in East Africa, essentially a large pit dug in the ground and covered with a floor slab that contains a hole to accept human waste.
Improvements can be made to facilitate cleaning such as embedding a ceramic squatting toilet pan or plastic saTo pan. When the pit is full, it is usually sealed over and the area is rendered unusable. There are several preferred sanitation options to consider. Sanitation blocks should be built away from other accommodation and functional spaces to minimise smell and insect nuisance.
Ecological sanitation principally involves separating out urine from solid waste (urine diversion) and recycling both for use as fertiliser.